The Male-Warrior Hypothesis (a 2006 article): researchers find evidence that intergroup rivalry increases cooperation among men, but not among women. Of course there are individual differences. The researchers are comparing groups.
Dave Munger writes about sugar, artificial sweeteners and obesity.
The immature brain behind the distractable toddler might actually help toddlers make sense of our chaotic world. (Wray Herbert).
Researchers at Northwestern University say they've found evidence that the collectivist-individualist dimensions of culture coevolve with genetic risk for anxiety and mood disorders. Specifically, they argue that collectivist culture may evolve as an effective buffer in populations more genetically susceptible to these conditions.
Here, we demonstrate for the first time a robust
association between cultural values of individualism–
collectivism and allelic frequency of the serotonin
transporter gene, controlling for associated economic
and disease factors. Geographical regions characterized
by cultural collectivism exhibit a greater prevalence of S allele carriers of the serotonin transporter gene, even
when cultural regions rather than nations served as the
unit of analysis. Additionally, we show that global variability
in historical pathogen prevalence predicts global
variability in individualism–collectivism owing to genetic
selection of the S allele of the serotonin transporter gene
in regions characterized by high collectivism.
we also reveal a novel and surprising negative association
between individualism–collectivism, frequency of S allele
carriers of the serotonin transporter gene and global
prevalence of anxiety and mood disorder. Across nations,
both collectivism and allelic frequency of the S allele
negatively predict global prevalence of anxiety and
mood disorders. Critically, our results further indicate
that greater population frequency of S allele carriers is
associated with decreased prevalence of anxiety and
mood disorders due to increased cultural collectivism.
The current findings suggest a novel demonstration of
culture–gene coevolution of human behaviour. Emphasizing
social norms that increase social harmony and
encourage giving social support to others, collectivism
serves an ‘anti-psychopathology’ function by creating an
ecological niche that lowers the prevalence of chronic
life stress, protecting genetically susceptible individuals
from environmental pathogens known to trigger negative
emotion and psychopathology. These findings complement
notions that cultural values of individualism and
collectivism are adaptive and by-products of evolution,
more broadly. For instance, recent evidence suggests
that cultural values of collectivism also serve an ‘antipathogen
defence’ whereby behavioural manifestations
of collectivism, such as conformity and parochialism,
function as buffers against the transmission and increased
prevalence of disease-causing pathogens (e.g. malaria,
typhus and tuberculosis) (Fincher et al. 2008). Our
results provide novel evidence that geographical regions
characterized by collectivistic cultural norms have a
higher historical and contemporary prevalence of infectious
diseases due, at least partially, to genetic selection
of S allele carriers (Fincher et al. 2008). Taken together,
these findings dovetail nicely as two examples of how cultural
values serve adaptive functions by tuning societal
behaviour so that social and environmental risk factors
are reduced and physical and mental health of group
members is maintained.
There have been quite a few, but recently vanishingly small (chances) and full-throated (endorsements/defenses) have gotten under my skin. They were nice, the first time I read them, but this morning alone, I read three different posts and one newspaper article that referred to a full-throated endorsement. And the chances that we've heard the last of vanishingly small are vanishingly small.